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So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...

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big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. This paper studied the corrosion behavior of c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces in sintered (Ce 0.15 Nd 0.85) 30 Fe bal B magnets. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The distribution of RE-rich phase is improved after Ce substitution compared with the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, and the value of A0 / A1 is approximate for both c ∥ and c ⊥ surfaces.Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7].

The initial step for manufacturing NdFeB plated permanent magnets in this unit process is NdFeB alloying and strip casting. NdFeB alloy is composed of 72% iron, 27% neodymium, and 1% boron from boron carbide (Sprecher et al., 2014). In order to stop free iron from forming, a small amount of iron formed between NdFeB crystals, the alloy is ...

Feb 9, 2023 · Abstract The process of hydrogen decrepitation of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy in wide temperature and pressure ranges has been studied. The choices of the chemical composition of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy and the method of production of the initial alloy based on out-of-furnace calcium–thermal reduction are substantiated. The introduction of dysprosium into the alloy ...

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Volume 24, Issues 2–3, 1 March 1999, Pages 257-261. Application of hydrogen vibration milling in theprocessing of NdFeB and (Nd, Pr)FeB permanent magnets. Author links open overlay panel R.S Mottram 1, V Yartys 2, P.W Guegan 1, I.r Harris 1. Show more.The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) behaviors of various forms of the permanent magnet alloy Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} and stoichiometric composition Nd{sub 11.8}Fe{sub 82.3}B{sub 5.9} have been investigated to provide background information on the production of sintered magnets by the HD process. ... The procedure …A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two different milling techniques ball milling and burr milling. The powders were analysed with optical microscopy, with the aid of a magnetic field.2.1. Introduction of this section. HDDR treatment is used to obtain Nd-Fe-B magnet powders with good magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity [6,8,19].Therefore, HDDR treatment has been used to produce anisotropic bonded magnets for high-performance motors in automobiles and electronic devices [20,21].In typical HDDR …Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7].

At these elevated tempera- tures the decrepitation process proceeded rapidly and particles were ejected from the sample on all sides, V.A. Yartys et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 50-54 53 Fig. 2. Surface of a plate ejected from the [001 ] aligned sintered Nd16FeTaB8 magnet at the first stage of hydrogen decrepitation.

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Broadening the knowledge about the hydrogen decrepitation of the NdFeB type materials is needed to better service the process e.g. for recycling (at room temperature only 4 out of 10 scrap magnets undergo decrepitation which is likely to be the result of the number and character of pin holes in the electroplated coatings and/or to possible ...The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …May 8, 2023 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at ... The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In this There are many major production steps –plus numerous sub steps- in the manufacture of high-quality, high-tech Neodymium magnets. Each step is highly important, and each step is an essential part of a highly refined …

NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), and can be …Aug 4, 2022 · One of the most promising solutions with regards to extraction of end-of-life (EOL) magnets is to apply hydrogen decrepitation and to physically separate the Nd-Fe-B as a demagnetized... The initial step for manufacturing NdFeB plated permanent magnets in this unit process is NdFeB alloying and strip casting. NdFeB alloy is composed of 72% iron, 27% neodymium, and 1% boron from boron carbide (Sprecher et al., 2014). In order to stop free iron from forming, a small amount of iron formed between NdFeB crystals, the alloy is ...The ultrafine magnet waste (particle size < 1 µm) contained around 50% rare earths mainly in the form of hydroxides as they are generated from the hydrogen decrepitation. The major phases in ultrafine NdFeB waste were Nd(OH) 3, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe phases. When ultrafine magnet waste was leached with hydrofluoric acid, all the iron …Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the …

The gravimetric measurements also confirmed that Dy additions increase both the initiation and absorption time for hydrogen decrepitation. Hence, a higher hydrogen pressure will be required to speed up the process. AB - Scrap containing NdFeB is a valuable resource for the production of NdFeB magnets as the demand for these materials grows.

Feb 1, 1997 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room temperature. This is an exothermic reaction [4] and the heat evolved then allows the second stage to proceed in which the hydrogen is absorbed by the Nd^FeuB matrix phase. As noted above, the calculated Gibbs energy of reactions of individual REE with atomic hydrogen (Table 1) is strongly negative, thereby predictive of rapid chemical decrepitation of the two-phase Nd-magnet within the temperature range of interest. These reactions can be expected to take place immediately … See moreJul 1, 2002 · The effective diffusivity of hydrogen in NdFeB magnets is reduced with Co and Ga additions and as a result of the texture induced in the microstructure via die-upsetting process. In addition to the results shown in Fig. 8 , the thermal desorption behaviour related to the hydrogenation of a die-upset MQU-G magnet is different for the two ... Apr 15, 2022 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in the range of 720–820 °C. Hydrogen processing of magnetic scrap (HPMS) as one of the best approaches for magnet-to-magnet recycling is thoroughly reviewed in this study in terms …Finely divided loose Nd2Fe14BHx, x≤5, hydride powder (particle size ≤1 μm is synthesized by washing Nd2Fe14B crystallites embedded in calcium and other by‐products (during a reduction‐diffusion‐reaction performed using excess calcium) in water. The calcium reacts thereby with the water and produces, Ca+H2O CaO+H2, native …Hydrogen decrepitation (HD)/hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) is a process used in manufacturing REPM and carried out as pretreatment before green body sintering. During hydrogenation, the Nd-rich grain boundary phase in NdFeB magnets initially absorbs hydrogen forming Nd hydride: [ 49 ].

Mar 1, 2019 · Fig. 1 shows the hydrogen decrepitation curves of Nd-Fe-B SC and SM at 288 K with different initial hydrogen pressure. Under the initial hydrogen pressure of 0.1–1 Mpa, the HD process composes of four stages of magnets surface activation, slow hydrogenation of Nd-rich grain boundary phase, quick hydrogenation of Nd 2 Fe 14 B main phase grains, and slow hydrogenation of inner part of the magnets.

2.1. Introduction of this section. HDDR treatment is used to obtain Nd-Fe-B magnet powders with good magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity [6,8,19].Therefore, HDDR treatment has been used to produce anisotropic bonded magnets for high-performance motors in automobiles and electronic devices [20,21].In typical HDDR …

Jun 27, 2014 · The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) bear the best magnetic properties (B r = 110.59 emu/g, H cj ... The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …Nov 15, 2021 · After the hydrogen decrepitation process, the powders were pulverized by either He-jet milling or N 2-jet milling, obtaining a powder with a particle size of ~0.8 µm for the HDDR processed and He-jet milled sample, ~1.0 µm for the He-jet milled sample, and ~3.0 µm for the N 2-jet milled sample. The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand. NdFeB sintered magnet material has been developed. The magnets are produced by powder metallurgy route involving hydrogen decrepitation technique for making fine powder. After melting and casting ...The nature of hydrogen decrepitation when applied to a cast Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy has been studied by following the microstructural changes on polished surfaces of the material exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 4 bar. The milling of the material decrepitated at a pressure of 10 bar has also been studied by determining …May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a …May 1, 2023 · The hydrogen absorbed by the whole alloy and, in particular, by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase decreases with temperature. Below 150 °C, the hydrogen absorbed by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase produces a significant transgranular cracking that is undesirable for particle shape. At 300 °C, the fast and limited absorption of hydrogen by the Nd-rich phase ... May 1, 2023 · The hydrogen absorbed by the whole alloy and, in particular, by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase decreases with temperature. Below 150 °C, the hydrogen absorbed by the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase produces a significant transgranular cracking that is undesirable for particle shape. At 300 °C, the fast and limited absorption of hydrogen by the Nd-rich phase ... An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …

The hydrogen treatment of the Nd‐Fe‐B alloy ingots was found to produce magnet powders with good magnetic properties. Typical magnetic properties of these powders are as follows; 4πIs = 9.5 kG, Br = 7.7 kG, iHc = 9.4 kOe, and (BH)max = 12.2 MGOe. Microstructural studies of these powders showed that they are made of fine …A combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) has been used to produce powder for the processing of permanent magnets. ... The procedure has proved to be very successful for both NdFeB (Neomax) alloys and the NdDyFeNbB high coercivity alloys. The magnets produced by the HD/JM process showed excellent …Anisotropic powder was prepared with precursor (NdDy)-(FeCoNbCu)-B sintered magnets by hydrogen decrepitation, desorption, and subsequent annealing treatment. The hydrogen desorption was performed in magnetic fields of 0, 1, 3, and 5 T. The orientation of tetragonal phase grains of the powder was evaluated from the …So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ...Instagram:https://instagram. who won women742261rxroewkrdiamonds 101 The process of hydrogen decrepitation (HD), which is used in the primary production and recycling of Nd magnets, takes place at low temperatures, even at room temperature, so that the entire microstructure decomposes only in powder form and the grain size is reduced. Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives. amateur francais xbobpercent27s discount furniture bangor Michihide Nakamura, Masashi Matsuura, Nobuki Tezuka, Satoshi Sugimoto, Yasuhiro Une, Hirokazu Kubo, Masato Sagawa; Preparation of ultrafine jet-milled powders for Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets using hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination and hydrogen …Mar 1, 2019 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) is used as an alternative method of powder preparation in the manufacturing process of sintered Nd Fe B magnets [ 1]. During the HD process a NdFeB-type material is hydrogenated by gaseous hydrogen at atmospheric (or elevated) pressure at room (or elevated) temperature. poor manpercent27s burnt ends oven recipe In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and …Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the …